MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL (12th century), Provençal scholar. A master of halakhah, Meshullam also occupied himself with secular studies. He was a wealthy man and philanthropist, and together with his sons provided for the support and maintenance of the disciples and scholars who flocked to his bet ha-midrash. Benjamin of Tudela describes him and his five sons as being "great and wealthy scholars, Joseph, Isaac, Jacob, Aaron, and Asher the ascetic, who had no concern with worldly matters, but devoted himself to study day and night, fasting and refraining from eating meat, and an outstanding talmudist, together with their brother-in-law Moses" (The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, ed. by E.N. Adler (1907), 3). Around them there gathered an outstanding group of talmudic scholars and seekers after knowledge, who became known as "the company of Lunel." In consequence lunel became famous as an important center of study. Many of them and their disciples were among the great scholars of that generation, including Samuel b. Moses, "the lion of the group," who apparently was head of the bet din, abraham b. isaac of narbonne , author of Ha-Eshkol, his son-in-law Abraham b. David of Posquières , and samuel b. david . This center even attracted scholars from Spain. As judah ibn tibbon notes, Meshullam was distinguished in fields of study other than Talmud. This was in contrast to Jewish scholars before him in Christian countries, who occupied themselves essentially with the Talmud, either because they regarded it as their sole avocation or because of lack of books on general sciences (which were then written in Arabic). Meshullam sponsored the translation of books on grammar, theology, rhetoric, ethics, and parables (cf. introduction to the Ḥovot ha-Levavot of Baḥya b. Joseph ibn Paquda , translated by Ibn Tibbon on the instruction of Meshullam). Meshullam himself also composed halakhic works, as well as books on "parables of wisdom and ethics" that are no longer extant. He is known to have written a book called Issur Mashehu, on minute quantities of forbidden foods, mentioned by solomon b. abraham adret in his novellae to Ḥullin (93b, Jerusalem, 1 (1963), ed. 227). From a fragment of the Issur Mashehu of Abraham b. David of Posquières published by S. Assaf (Sifran shel Rishonim (1935), 185–98) "which I wrote before my teacher Meshullam" it is clear that Abraham b. David wrote it in answer to a work of the same title by Meshullam so as to discuss critically the latter's views. It was recently discovered and published by Y. Kafahin the responsa of the Rabad which he edited (1964, 241ff. no. 207). According to Solomon ibn Verga (in Shevet Yehudah), Meshullam died in 1170, but the date is not certain. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Meshullam b. Moses of Béziers, Sefer ha-Hashlamah le-Seder Nezikin, ed. by J. Lubetzki, 1 (1885), introd., VI; Abraham b. Isaac of Narbonne, Sefer ha-Eshkol, ed. by S. Albeck, 1 (1935), introd., 10; Benedikt, in: Tarbiz, 22 (1950/51), 100f.; S. Assaf, Sifran shel Rishonim (1935), 185f.; I. Twersky, Rabad of Posquières (1962), index. (Shlomoh Zalman Havlin)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Meshullam ben Jacob — Rabbeinu Meshullam son of Jacob (Meshullam ben Ya akov) also known as Rabbeinu Meshullam hagodol (Rabbi Meshullem the great) was a Franco Jewish Talmudist of the twelfth century CE. He had a Talmudic Yeshiva in Lunel which produced several famous …   Wikipedia

  • MESHULLAM BEN MOSES — (c. 1175–c. 1250), scholar of Béziers and one of the most prominent scholars of Provence in the 13th century. Meshullam, born in Lunel into one of the distinguished families of Provençal Jewry, went to Béziers with his father, Moses b. Judah, one …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHER BEN MESHULLAM HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL — (late 12th century), Provençal talmudist; known as the Rosh of Lunel. He was the son of meshullam b. jacob of Lunel and brother of aaron b. meshullam of Lunel. He lived an ascetic life and was referred to as a parush ( hermit ) by Benjamin of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AARON BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL — (end of 13th and first half of 14th century), Provençal scholar. Despite his name, he was probably not from Lunel but from Narbonne, where his forefathers lived. In his well known work Orḥot Ḥayyim he makes frequent mention of the customs of Nar… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB — (known as Rif; 1013–1103), author of the most important code prior to the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides. In a sense, Alfasi brought the geonic period to a close. The last of the Babylonian geonim, Hai Gaon, died when Alfasi was 25 years old. Alfasi …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JACOB NAZIR — (Jacob ben Saul of Lunel; second half of 12th century), scholar and kabbalist in Lunel, S. France. The brother of Asher b. Saul, author of Sefer ha Minhagot, Jacob was a colleague of abraham b. david (RABaD). Solomon Schechter (JQR 5, 1893, pp.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne — (c. 1110 ndash; 1179) was a Provençal rabbi, also known as Raavad II, and author of the halachic work Ha Eshkol ( The Cluster ).Abraham ben Isaac was probably born at Montpellier. His teacher was Moses ben Joseph ben Merwan ha Levi, and during… …   Wikipedia

  • ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES — (known as Rabad, i.e., Rabbi Abraham Ben David; c. 1125–1198); talmudic authority in Provence. Abraham was born in Narbonne, and died in Posquières, a small city near Nîmes famous for the yeshivah he established there. He lived during a… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AARON BEN MESHULLAM OF LUNEL — (d. c. 1210), one of the leading scholars of Lunel. He was the son of meshullam b. jacob of Lunel. Aaron studied under abraham b. david of Posquières, with whom he subsequently corresponded. A book on the laws of terefot is attributed to him, but …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon — (1120 – after 1190) was a translator and physician. Born in Granada, he left Spain in 1150, probably on account of anti Semitic persecution by the Almohades, and went to Lunel in southern France. Benjamin of Tudela mentions him as a physician… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”